The name ** Bread'* is not only applied to the flour of wheat, but to that of other grains, when mixed with milk or water, and made light by the action of carbonic acid gas, and the cells thus formed, fixed by baking. Home-
made bread should consist only of flour, water or milk, yeast and salt, and if properly and carefully made will be nutritious, palatable, light and very different from ordinary bakers' bread. It is necessary and very important
that bread should be light and porous, to allow the juices of the stomach to have access to every part, and that digestion in all parts may be commenced at the same time. Before giving you a bread lesson, allow me to teach you something about flour. Dealers will kindly close their ears. The different brands and fancy names given to flour do not in any way impair its quality, even if they are striking and inappropriate. Each dealer has his own brand, and as there are several hundred grocerymen in Philadelphia alone, it cannot be supposed that each runs his own separate mill. Directly the contrary — one mill fills many barrels, and marks them according to the "tastes and fancies" of its patrons, and they come to our and other markets, under various names — such as the "Blue Rose," "Pond Lily,"
* Golden Seal," and other similar names. It is better that each housekeeper should learn to test and judge flour before purchasing. At present nearly all the flour in the market is granulated — a good, wholesome, strong and economical flour for bread, but I cannot say I like it for cake and pies. You have to learn to use and handle, as you cannot follow recipes given for other flours. One-third less of granulated flour, is a rule worth remembering.
Good flour should be smooth, with a decided yellow cast, and thicken quickly when made into a paste with water. This paste should be elastic and tough. Our common white flour contains a large amount of starch, with a
smaller amount of muscle-making material. Whole wheat bread, that is, bread made from the entire wheat grain, constitutes in itself a complete life sustainer, consequently bread-making is the most important of the cookery
of grain food. After selecting the flour, the next important point is good yeast. Potato yeast is best, as the potato starch is particularly adapted to the yeast fermentation. The compressed yeast cakes, however, are very good
and convenient, one cake being equal to one cup of good yeast. Let me tell you that yeast is a plant, and a very delicate one, that does not flourish under extreme heat or cold; consequently you must be very careful in your selection of a place where your bread shall stand to ferment. If chilled it requires double time to become light; if scalded, it is killed, nothing can restore it. An even temperature, from 65 degrees to 70 degrees Fahr., is best. Like other plants, yeast requires transplanting, you first sponge, then knead, then mould, each time using extra flour. In warm weather the liquid for the sponge should be cool; in winter blood heat, 98 degrees Fahr. Many are the ways of making bread ; some persons use milk, others water. But sweetness and lightness are always the chief considerations.
Scald a pint of milk as before ; add one pint of water, a level teaspoonful of salt, and one compressed yeast cake
dissolved; then add a quart of flour. Beat for five minutes; then continue adding flour until you have a
dough sufficiently thick for kneading. Knead thoroughly until it is soft and elastic. The grain will be finer and
the dough whiter if you pound it for at least five minutes with a good strong potato masher; or you may lift it in
your hand and throw it on the board. Put it into a bowl or pan; cover it and stand it in a warm place, 7 degrees Fahr.,
for three hours. Divide into four loaves, and put each into a greased pan. Cover and stand aside for one hour;
if in a square pan, bake in a moderately quick oven three- quarters of an hour; if in a long French pan, in a quick
oven thirty minutes.
NINETEENTH CENTURY BREAD
Scald one pint of milk (180 degrees Fahr.), being careful not to allow it to boil; add one pint of water. When this mix-
ture is lukewarm, add one cake of compressed yeast dissolved in four tablespoonfuls of cool water, a level tea-
spoonful of salt, and sufficient whole wheat flour (about one quart) to make a stiff batter. Beat continuously for
five minutes; cover and stand in a warm place; in winter, three hours, in summer two and a half hours will
be sufficient. Then stir in slowly sufficient flour to make a dough. Turn this out on the baking board; knead
continuously until you have a soft, elastic loaf. Divide into four; mould each portion into a loaf; put into greased
pans ; cover, and stand in a warm place one hour, or until it has doubled its bulk, and feels very light when you pick
it up in the hand. Brush the top with water, and bake in a moderately quick oven three-quarters of an hour. Turn
from the pans; rest the loaf so that the air will pass around it ; and allow it to cool. Keep in a clean tin box.
If homemade yeast is used add a half cupful, make the same, but allow the sponge to stand over night.
Bread sticks may be made either from the nineteenth century or white bread dough. Roll a portion of the
dough out in the hands, making it the size of a lead pencil. Cut it the length of the bread stick pan, and
put each one in its own compartment. Let them stand thirty minutes; brush with water, and bake in a quick
oven fifteen minutes.
BOSTON BROWN BREAD
Put into a large bowl two cups of Yankee rye meal (not rye flour), two cups of coarse Indian meal, and a teaspoon-
ful of salt. Dissolve a teaspoonful of soda in two tablespoonfuls of boiling water, and then add it to one and
a half pints of sour milk; add one cup of molasses and pour it on the meal. Beat continuously for about ten
minutes, or until all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. Pour into well-greased moulds, put on the lid and steam for
five hours. Then remove the lid, and bake in a moderately quick oven for thirty minutes.
COARSE MEAL BREAD
Make a milk sponge, just as you would for ordinary bread, about ten o'clock at night, using one pint of milk. Early
in the morning, put a half-pint of Indian meal into a bowl and pour over it just enough boiling water to scald it, but
not enough to make it soft. Moist, but dry, if you can understand that. Add to the sponge one cup of the oat-
meal cooked for breakfast, then the scalded meal, two ounces of melted butter, and sufficient flour to make a
soft dough. Beat and work for five minutes. Do not make as stiff as ordinary bread. After well kneaded, form
into loaves, put into greased pans, cover, put in a warm place, and when very light, bake in a moderately quick
oven for one hour.
Scald one pint of milk, and when cool, add a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of sugar, and three cups of flour,
beat well, add a half-cup of yeast, or half a compressed cake, dissolved in a half-cup of lukewarm water, cover
and stand in a warm place for three hours. If you want them for six o'clock tea, they should be sponged about ten
o'clock in the morning. When light, add two ounces of butter or lard, and sufficient flour to make a dough.
Knead thoroughly, put back in the bowl, cover, stand in a warm place until they double their bulk, then make them
carefully into small biscuits, place in greased pans, cover, stand aside for three-quarters of an hour, and bake in a
quick oven fifteen minutes.
FRENCH BREAKFAST ROLLS
Scald one pint of milk, cut into it three ounces of butter, add a teaspoonful of salt, and when cool, sift in one pound
of flour, add one egg well beaten, and a half yeast cake dissolved, or a half cup of yeast, beat well, and stand in
a warm place over night. In the morning form into little rolls, handling as little as possible, adding very little
flour. Place each roll in a French roll pan, stand in a warm place three-quarters of an hour, and bake in a quick
oven for fifteen minutes.
Put one quart of sifted flour into a bowl, add to it a heaping tablespoonful of butter or lard, rub well together with
the hands until the flour is thoroughly greased, add two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, a teaspoonful of salt,
and sufficient milk to make a soft dough, about a half- pint; mix and knead quickly. Roll out about a half-inch thick, cut with a small cutter, place two inches apart in greased pans, and bake in a quick oven fifteen or twenty minutes. These biscuits should be a delicate brown top and bottom, light on the sides, and snowy white when broken open.
Rub three ounces of butter into one quart of sifted flour. Beat the yolks of three eggs, add to them one and a half pints
of milk, then stir them into the flour. Beat until smooth, add one teaspoonful of salt, and then stir in carefully the
well-beaten whites of the eggs, and two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.
In baking waffles use a small paint brush to grease the iron, and a pitcher to pour out the batter. Waffles
made by filling the iron with a spoon are always uneven and ragged. If yeast is used, scald the milk and when luke-
warm, add the yeast, and then the salt and buttered flour. After beating, cover and stand in a warm place for three
hours, then add the eggs beaten separately, and bake.
Separate three eggs, beat till yolks, add to them one pint of milk, a teaspoonful of salt, two and a half cups of
sifted flour, beat well, add two ounces of melted butter, the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth and two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, mix, and bake in greased gem pans or muffin rings in a quick oven for about twenty-five
Make same as preceding recipe, omitting a half-cup of flour and adding a cup of boiled rice.
Beat two eggs, without separating, until thoroughly mixed, add a half-pint of milk, and a quarter- teaspoonful of salt.
Put a half-pint of flour into a bowl, add gradually the milk and egg, stirring all the while, then put the whole through
a fine strainer. Have ready iron gem pans, greased and very hot, fill them half-full of the mixture, and bake in a
moderately quick oven for about thirty minutes. They should pop to four times their original bulk. These are
nice served as a breakfast cake, or with Lemon Sauce as a dessert.
WHEAT GRANULE GEMS
Beat the yolks of three eggs.add to them one pint of sweet milk, one and a half cups of
wheat granules, a half-cup of white corn meal, a teaspoonful of salt and two ounces of melted butter. Beat all
well together and then stir in carefully two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder and well-beaten whites. Bake in Gem pans. the Sake in gem pans in a moderately quick oven for thirty-five to forty minutes.
Stir into one pint of buttermilk sufficient corn meal to make a thin batter; add a teaspoonful of salt and one egg
well-beaten. Dissolve a level teaspoonful of soda in two tablespoons of boiling water; stir this into the batter;
mix well and pour into shallow greased baking-pans. Bake in a moderately quick oven for forty minutes.
Put one pint of milk in a farina boiler to scald. Boil a half-cup of rice until tender, about twenty minutes. Stand
the milk aside until lukewarm, then add to it a half-cup of yeast, or half a compressed yeast cake dissolved in a half-
cup of lukewarm water. Drain the rice, and press it through a colander, then add it to milk; add four ounces
of melted butter, a teaspoonful of salt, and three cupfuls of flour. Now beat vigorously for about two or three min-
utes, cover, and stand in a warm place until very light, which will take about two hours. Grease large muffin rings
and place them on a hot griddle, fill each ring half-full of the batter, bake slowly until brown on one side, then turn
and brown the other. When done, butter them nicely, and serve quickly on a hot plate.
OAT MEAL WAFERS
One pint of sifted Bethlehem oat meal. Rub into it one ounce of butter ; add one large teaspoonful of salt, the
well-beaten white of one egg, with sufficient water to moisten the meal. Knead for five minutes. Roll into a
very thin sheet and cut into wafers about two inches square. Bake carefully in a slow oven for thirty minutes,
SCOTCH OAT CAKES
Put a half-pint of ^ fine oat meal into a bowl, add one teaspoonful of salt, and pour over it a half-pint of boiling
water, and add two ounces of butter; beat all well together with a spoon for ten minutes. Divide into three pieces,
and flatten each out into a thin cake with the hands. These cakes must be very, very thin, or they are not good.
Grease a cake griddle lightly with suet, put on the cakes, and bake on the back part of the stove very slowly for one hour.
EGGS AND OMELETS
If it were my privilege to examine all the cooks in the universe, I should first ask them to make a plain omelet.
Nothing so shows their ignorance or so perfectly displays their skill. To make a good plain omelet one must
have a perfectly smooth sheet-iron pan, about eight inches in diameter. It should be as smooth in the bottom as
glass. If it is not make it so by scouring with common salt, after which do not wash. Break four or six eggs into
a bowl, and with a fork give twelve or fifteen vigorous beats; they should be well mixed but not light. Beating
either together or separately robs the eggs of their flavor. Do not add salt or pepper until the omelet is nearly done,
as the salt toughens the eggs. Add one tablespoonful of boiling water to each egg, beat an instant to mix, and at
last add a piece of butter the size of a hickory nut. Now put about one ounce or one tablespoonful of butter into
your smooth frying-pan, and as soon as the it is melted, not browned, pour in the eggs, shake them over the fire, and
with a limber knife separate the setting part from the frying-pan, and let the more liquid part go underneath.
The omelet must not stick. Continue this lifting until the omelet is set, not hard; dust quickly with salt and pepper,
slip your knife under the omelet, roll it over, and slide it gently on a hot dish. Serve at once. It is better that you
should wait five minutes for an omelet, than an omelet wait one minute for you. Never use milk, as it always makes a
tough, heavy omelet. Neither should you use flour or corn-starch. It is a great error to think an omelet should
be a dark brown ; it ruins the flavor and toughens the omelet. It should simply be a light golden brown.
Drain and chop one dozen oysters. Break six eggs in a bowl, beat as directed above, add the oysters, six table-
spoonfuls of hot water, and finish the same as plain omelet. This is most delicious, and I am sure after trying these
French omelets, you will never again eat those "fluffy, tough and leathery ones of Bridget's.
Cut a quarter-pound of bacon into very small pieces and fry until brown, then add three tablespoon fulls of stewed
tomatoes, a tablespoonful of finely chopped onion; stand the whole on the back of the range and cook gently for
ten minutes. In the meantime break six eggs in a bowl, add six tablespoonfuls of boiling water, mix, and fry the
same as plain omelet. When the omelet is set, but not hard, dust with pepper, and pour the mixture from the
other frying-pan over it. Now fold the omelet once and turn out in the center of a heated plate and serve immediately.
Put one pint of plain apple sauce through a colander; add to it while hot, two ounces of buttery sweeten to taste, and
stand away until cold. Beat separately two eggs; then add the yolks to the whites, and stir them into the cold
apple sauce. Butter a baking-dish and then dust it thickly with bread-crumbs, both bottom and sides. Put in the
omelet. Sprinkle the top thickly with crumbs and bake thirty minutes in a quick oven. Serve hot with powdered
Score down the center of the grains of four nice young ears of com, and with the back of the knife press out the pulp.
Beat four eggs without separating just enough to mix the whites and yolks, add the com, a saltspoon of pepper, and
a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Put another piece in an omelet pan, and when melted and hot turn in the omelet,
and shake over a good fire until well 'set,' lift one side now and then and drain the liquid part under that already
cooked. When nearly done, dust with salt. When done, but not solid in the center, begin to roll and then turn it
out on a hot meat-dish. This is a delicious omelet if well made; a little practice will enable you to make it with
Mix two tablespoonfuls of rice flour in a half-pint of milk, add four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, and cook in a
double boiler for five minutes, stirring constantly. Beat the yolks of three eggs, an ounce of butter, and a tablespoon-
ful of water together until very light, add^ this to the hot rice mixture, beat until all is very smooth, and stand aside
to keep warm. Beat the whites of six eggs until light and dry, put them around the bottom and sides of a baking-
dish, fill the first mixture in the center, place in the oven a few moments to lightly color. Serve with Vanilla Sauce,
I presume every housekeeper would be indignant at the very thought whispered that they could not boil an egg.
The fact, however, remains, that many cannot produce the best results. First, have a good-sized kettle of boiling
water; allow the eggs to remain an hour in the room before boiling, or the shell will crack when immersed in the boil-
ing water. The sudden expansion of the contents, produced by the excessive heat, causes the shell to give way.
Stale eggs are less likely to break on account of the air, which has replaced the evaporated liquid. After you have
dropped the eggs into the boiling water, closely cover the kettle, and stand it on the back part of the range, where
it cannot boil. Allow them to stand in this position for about five minutes, at which time the white of the egg will
be found thoroughly cooked, but liquid, and the egg will be, in every sense of the word, soft-boiled, and easily
To those persons who like hard-boiled eggs, we would recommend gentle boiling for at least twenty minutes, when
the yolks will be well done and mealy.
Boil five eggs for twenty minutes. Remove the shells, chop the whites as fine as possible, and rub the yolks
through a sieve. Do not mix them. Put a half-pint of milk in a double boiler to scald. Rub together one even
tablespoonful of corn-starch and one of butter; now add gradually the scalded milk, return it to the double boiler
and stir constantly until it thickens; add the chopped whites and a palatable seasoning of salt and pepper.
Have ready squares of toasted bread ; cover them with this white sauce, sprinkle over the sifted yolks, dust the tops
with salt and pepper, stand in the oven a moment, and serve.
Drop fresh eggs into little individual dishes, dust with salt and pepper, place a small bit of butter on the top of
each yolk, stand the dishes in a baking-pan, and bake in a quick oven until the whites are set. Serve in the dishes in
which they were cooked.
EGGS a la TRIPE
Peel and chop very fine six Bermuda onions, put them in a saucepan with two ounces of butter, a half-teaspoonful of
salt, and a quarter-teaspoonful of black pepper, simmer gently one hour, then add gradually one tablespoonful of
flour ; mix well, and add a half-pint of milk, stir constantly until it boils, and press the whole through a fine sieve.
Have ready six hard-boiled eggs cut in slices, cover them with this sauce, and serve very hot.
TIMBALE OF EGGS
Break six eggs into a bowl, add one gill of thick cream, a half-teaspoonful of salt, a quarter-teaspoonful of pepper,
and beat until creamy. Pour into greased custard cups, stand these in a pan containing water, place in a quick
oven and bake until the eggs are '*set*' in the centers. When done remove them carefully from the mould and
serve very hot with sauce Bechamel poured around them.
Break four eggs into a bowl, beat them with a wire spoon, if you have one, if not, a fork, until thoroughly mixed,
then add two tablespoonfuls of cream, one tablespoonful of stock or beef juice, two ounces of butter, and a quarter-
teaspoonful of white pepper, mix a moment, and turn the whole into an ungreased small saucepan. Cook over the
fire until the eggs are set, beating vigorously all the while; add a half-teaspoonful of salt and turn into a heated dish.
Serve immediately with squares of buttered toast.
Toast carefully six squares of baker's bread; butter them while hot, and then plunge them quickly into a bowl of
hot water. Have ready for their reception a heated meat dish, which you may keep warm by placing over hot water.
In a porcelain-lined or granite saucepan put a half-cup of milk, two cups of rich cheese, grated, a quarter-teaspoonful
of bi-carbonate of soda and a dash of cayenne. Stand this over a moderate fire and stir rapidly and continuously
until the cheese is melted. Do not allow it to boil or it will curdle. Take from the fire and add a half-teaspoonful
of salt and the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Pour this over the toasted bread and serve.
Put two ounces of bread, without crust, and one gill of milk on to boil, stir, and cook a moment until smooth, then add
four tablespoonfuls of grated cheese and two tablespoonfuls of butter, stir again until the cheese is melted, take from
the fire, add the yolks of two eggs slightly beaten, a half-teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of cayenne; mix, and stir
in carefully the well-beaten whites of three eggs, pour into a greased baking-dish and bake in a quick oven fifteen
minutes. Serve at once, or it will collapse. This may be served as a cheese course at dinner or as a luncheon dish.
Wafers should accompany it.
Two ounces of flour, three ounces of grated cheese, a little cayenne, a little salt, yolk of one egg, and sufficient ice-
water to make a dough. Mix the flour, cayenne, salt and cheese together, moisten with the egg first, then with what
water is needed; work all into a smooth paste. Roll out on a board, one-eighth of an inch thick, five inches long,
and five inches wide. Cut some of the paste in small rings, and some in strips of one-eighth of an inch wide. Place
both on greased sheets and bake ten minutes in an oven (240 degrees Fahr.) till a light brown. Put the straws through
the rings like a bundle of faggots.
Chop a half-pound of English cheese quite fine, add to it one tablespoonful of French mustard, and work the whole
to a smooth paste, spread on very thin slices of bread, which have been buttered, trim off" the crusts, put two slices
together and cut into neat squares.
Break six ounces of macaroni into pieces six inches long, put them into a large kettle of boiling water, and boil
rapidly for twenty minutes, drain, and throw into cold water for fifteen minutes. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter
in a small saucepan, when melted add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and a pint of milk, stir continually until it boils,
take from the fire, and add four ounces of grated or chopped cheese and a quarter-teaspoonful of bi-carbonate of
soda. Put the macaroni in a baking-dish, sprinkle over it a teaspoonful of salt and a little pepper, mix, pour over the
cheese dressing, sprinkle the top with bread-crumbs, place here and there a few bits of butter, and bake in a quick
oven till a light brown.
SPAGHETTI ITALIAN (In the cookbook it was spelled spighetti)
Boil as preceding recipe a half-pound of spaghetti. Peel one onion and cut it into slices; put it with two ounces of
butter in a frying-pan, when lightly colored add a tablespoonful of flour and a half-pint of strained tomatoes; stir
until it boils, and add two ounces of Parmesan cheese, two ounces Gruyere, a saltspoonful of salt, a dash of cayenne,
and an eighth of a teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. Mix all thoroughly together, add the spaghetti, and when very
Macaroni may always be substituted for spaghetti, or vice versa,
SPAGHETTI WITH TOMATO SAUCE
Fill a three-quart kettle nearly full with boiling water. Weigh a half-pound of spaghetti; take about six lengths
in your hand, stand them in the boiling water; in a moment they will soften so that you can slightly bend them around
the kettle ; so continue until you have all the spaghetti in. Whirl it around with the fork to thoroughly separate then
boil rapidly twenty minutes; drain in colander, then throw it in cold water for fifteen minutes to blanch. Make a Tomato Sauce, add the spaghetti to it, bring all gently to a boil, and serve.
SPAGHETTI WITH BROWN SAUCE
Boil as directed a half pound of spighetti, using stock in place of water; a smaller quantity will, however, answer.
When done, drain, but do not blanch. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying-pan, and, when very brown,
add two tablespoonfuls of flour, mix and brown, and then add a pint of stock in which the spighetti was boiled, stir
constantly until it thickens ; add a tablespoonful of mushroom catsup, or six chopped mushrooms, two tablespoon-
fuls of Parmesan, a half-teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, then the spaghetti; bring quickly to a boil, and
serve very hot.
Have ready some nicely toasted squares of bread. Take the desired quantity of cheese, chop it fine, put it in a
small saucepan, and to each cupful, add a half-teaspoonful of made mustard, a dash of black pepper and two tablespoonfuls of milk; stir this over the fire until soft and stringy, then pour it over the toast, stand it in a hot oven
about two minutes, and serve.
TO BOIL POTATOES
Peel the potatoes carefully, throw them into cold water for fifteen minutes, drain, put them into a kettle, cover with
boiling water; do not give them a tremendous bath, but simply cover them, put on the lid, and boil slowly until the
potatoes are soft enough to admit a fork. This will take about thirty minutes. If you allow the potatoes to remain
one moment in the water after they are done they will become waxy and heavy, and nothing that you can do
will restore them to their mealy condition. The moment they are tender drain off every drop of water, sprinkle the
the potatoes with salt, and stand them to dry uncovered on the back part of the range, giving them an occasional
shake. If the directions are carefully followed, the result will be a dry, mealy potato, with the outside starch grains
shining like silver.
BERMUDA POTATOES WITH PARSLEY SAUCE
Scrape and boil the potatoes carefully; while they are boiling, prepare the sauce as follows: Put two tablespoon-
fuls of butter in a saucepan to melt, add to it two even tablespoonfuls of flour, mix until smooth, and add one pint of milk, stir continually until it boils, add a teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoon of pepper, and a tablespoonful of finely-
chopped parsley, pour it over the potatoes, and serve without delay.
Pare six potatoes, cut them into dice; throw them into cold water for fifteen minutes, drain, and cover with boil-
ing water and boil until tender; then drain off every drop of water; dredge them with a tablespoonful of flour, adil
a piece of butter the size of a walnut, a half-pint of milk, a half-teaspoonful of salt, and a little black pepper; stir
carefully until they boil, and serve in a heated dish.
Put two cups of cold mashed potatoes into a frying-pan, add the yolks of two eggs, a tablespoonful of butter, three
tablespoonfuls of cream, one teaspoonful of salt, and a saltspoon of pepper. Stir until very hot. Take from the
fire and stir in carefully the well-beaten whites of the eggs. Put into a baking-dish and brown in a quick oven.
POTATOES a la BECHAMEL
Cut cold boiled potatoes into thick slices. Put them in a shallow baking-dish, and pour over a Sauce Bechamel,
sprinkle with bread-crumbs, and put in the oven a few minutes to brown.
DELMONICO HASHED POTATOES
Pare and chop fine four good-sized raw potatoes. Season them with a teaspoonful of salt and a saltspoon full of pepper. Put them into a baking-dish, just cover with milk, and bake in a quick oven for forty minutes. Serve in the dish in which they were baked.
FRIED POTATOES (French)
Pare potatoes, and soak in cold water for one hour. Cut them either with a vegetable scoop or into squares. Have ready a pan of very hot lard; dry the potatoes on a towel. Drop them into the lard and cook until tender and brown. Take out with a skimmer, drain on brown paper, and stand in the oven a few minutes. When all are done, sprinkle with salt, and serve hot.
Boil and mash six good-sized potatoes, add to them one egg, salt and pepper to taste; beat well and line a baking dish (bottom and sides) about one inch thick. Chop any cold cooked meat, season it with salt, pepper and a piece
of butter size of a walnut; put it in the centre of the dish, cover it over with the remainder of the potato, and bake
in a moderate oven for thirty minutes. Turn out to serve.
Put two cups of hot or cold mashed potatoes into a small saucepan, add the yolks of two eggs, a tablespoonful of
butter, a tablespoonful of cream, a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of cayenne, and a half-teaspoonful of onion juice.
Stir, and mix over the fire until smoking hot, take from the fire, add a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, mix, and form
into cylinder-shape croquettes. Dip first in egg and then in bread-crumbs, and fry in smoking hot fat.
Cut large potatoes into halves. Scoop out the centres, leaving enough of the potato with the skin to form a case
or cup. Mince cold cooked meat, add to it salt, pepper, and a palatable amount of butter; put into these potato
cups, brush over the tops with beaten egg, and bake in a moderate oven until the potatoes are done. The portion
scooped out may be used for mashed potatoes or potato croquettes. These, if nicely made, are very palatable.
Bake six good-sized potatoes. When done, cut off the tops, and with a spoon scoop out the potato into a hot bowl.
Mash fine, and add one tablespoonful of butter, a quarter-cup of hot milk, a teaspoonful of salt, and pepper to taste.
Beat untill very light, then add the well-beaten whites of two eggs; stir gently. Fill the skins with this mixture,
heaping it on the top ; brush over with the yolk of the eggs, put in the oven to brown.
They may also be cut into halves and stuffed.
Put one cup of cold mashed potatoes into a bowl, add two tablespoonfuls of cream, half a teaspoonful of salt, mix
well and add three eggs well beaten. Put a tablespoonful of butter in a smooth frying-pan, when hot put in the
potatoes, and flatten them perfectly even, all over the pan. Cook slowly until the potatoes are hot, smooth and a nice
brown ; then turn one half over the other and turn out on a heated dish.
Pare perfectly sound potatoes, cut them into thin slices, soak in cold water for thirty minutes. Dry them on a towel, and fry them a few pieces at a time in smoking hot lard. Cook carefully until a light brown and very crisp. Drain, put them in a colander on a soft piece of brown paper, dust with salt and place at the oven door a moment to dry.
PUREE OF SWEET POTATOES
Bake four good-sized red sweet potatoes. When done take out the centers, and press through a colander. Put one
quart of milk on to heat in a double boiler. Rub together one tablespoonful of butter and two even tablespoonfuls
of flour, stir these into the hot milk, stir until it thickens, add a palatable seasoning of salt and pepper, a grating
of nutmeg, a few drops of onion juice, and then pour it gradually over the potatoes. Press the whole through a
very fine sieve, reheat, and serve.
SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES
Boil four good-sized sweet potatoes. When done, peel and mash them through a colander, add one tablespoonful of
butter, one teaspoonful of salt, a dash of cayenne, and four tablespoonfuls of cream. Beat until light, form into
croquettes. Dip first into beaten egg and then in bread crumbs, and fry in smoking hot fat.
Select large, smooth tomatoes. Cut a slice off the stem end, and with your finger press out the seeds. For six
tomatoes, mix a half-cup of finely-chopped cold meat, two heaping tablespoonfuls of stale bread-crumbs, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, half-teaspoonful of salt, a salt spoon of pepper and two tablespoonfuls of melted butter.
When these are well mixed, fill the tomatoes, heaping it up in the centre. Place them in a granite baking-pan, and
bake in a moderate oven for forty minutes, basting frequently with melted butter. When done, lift carefully
with a cake turner, place in a heated dish, and serve.
PLAIN BAKED TOMATOES
Select the desired number of sound, solid tomatoes, rinse, and place in a granite or porcelain baking-pan. Put them
in a moderate oven and bake for forty minutes. When done, lift carefully without breaking the skins, and slide
each one on a piece of buttered toast. Serve whole. Let each one season to suit one's self.
Pour boiling water over the tomatoes and then remove the skins. Cut the tomatoes into pieces, rejecting any hard or green parts, put them in a porcelain-lined or granite pan, add one slice of onion, and simmer gently for thirty minutes, stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon. When done add three ounces of butter to every quart of tomatoes, season with salt and pepper.
TOMATOES ON THE HALF-SHELL
Choose good, solid, not over-ripe, tomatoes. Rinse and cut into halves, put them on a wire broiler, skin-side down,
and broil about five minutes. Have ready a dish of buttered toast; lift each piece of tomato carefully and slide it
on a square of toast. Season lightly with salt and pepper, put a small piece of butter on each piece and serve at
once, or use Cream Sauce.
TOMATOES WITH CREAM SAUCE
Having rinsed the tomatoes, cut them into halves, place in a baking-pan, dust with salt and pepper, put a small piece
of butter on each half. Place in a moderate oven and bake about one hour or until tender. When done lift
carefully and slide on to a heated dish. Remove the skins from two or three of the softest pieces and mix the tomato
with the butter in the pan, add one pint of milk or cream. While this is heating slowly, mix until smooth two even
tablespoonfuls of flour with a little cold milk, add it quickly to the pan, stir continually until it comes to boiling point. Do not boil or it will curdle. Take from fire, add salt and pepper, and pour it over tomatoes.
The white-apple tomato is the best for breading on account of its fruity flavor. Rinse and wipe dry, cut into
slices about a quarter-inch thick, dust with salt and pepper. Add a tablespoonful of water to a well-beaten egg.
Turn some nice, dried bread-crumbs into a large dinner plate, dip the tomatoes quickly in the egg and then into the
bread-crumbs, cover them carefully all over and lay them out on a board a few moments to dry. Put about two
tablespoonfuls of lard or dripping (not butter) into an iron saute pan, when hot put in enough slices to cover the
bottom. Brown quickly on one side, then turn and brown the other. Lift carefully, and serve without delay.
Put a layer of stewed tomatoes in the bottom of a baking dish, then a thick layer of stale bread-crumbs, a sprinkling
of salt and pepper, a few bits of butter, then another layer of tomatoes, and so on until the dish is full, having the last
layer crumbs dotted with bits of butter. Bake in a quick oven for thirty minutes. Serve in the dish in which it
SPINACH WITH EGG SAUCE
Wash and remove the roots and stems from a half-peck of spinach. Now wash the leaves through several waters to
remove the grit and sand. Drain the spinach and put it into a kettle with a pint of boiling water, sprinkle over one teaspoonful of salt, and boil rapidly twenty minutes, and not one moment longer, or it will destroy its color. Drain, and
then press the spinach through a colander. Put it into a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter, two tablespoonfuls
of cream, and a seasoning of salt and pepper. Have ready six hard-boiled eggs, cut them into halves crosswise;
remove the yolks and take a little clipping from the bottom of each to make them stand. Fill the spinach into the
cavities from which the yolks were taken, heap it up, making each one hold a tablespoonful, stand them on a pretty dish
in a warm place while you make the sauce. Melt a tablespoonful of butter, add to it an even tablespoonful of flour,
mix until smooth, and add a half-pint of boiling water; stir rapidly until the sauce is smooth and velvety, take from
the fire, add a tablespoonful of butter cut into bits, a teaspoonful of lemon juice, a half-teaspoonful of salt, and
a dash of white pepper, mix until the butter is melted, and add the yolks of the eggs that have been pressed through
a sieve, bring the sauce to boiling point, pour it around the spinach, and serve.
SOUTHERN CORN PUDDING
Score twelve ears of corn, and with a dull knife press out the pulp, add a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper and a
pint of milk. Beat four eggs separately until very light, add first the yolks and then the whites, turn the mixture
into a baking-dish, and bake in a quick oven until a nice brown.
Score twelve ears of sweet com and press out the pulp. Add to it a half-cup of milk, the same quantity of flour,
and three eggs well-beaten. Season with salt and pepper. Fry in smoking hot lard or drippings. Brown on one side,
then turn and brown the other. Drain on brown paper, and serve very hot.
Put one quart of chopped white cabbage in a kettle of boiling water, add a teaspoonful of salt, and boil twenty min-
utes, drain, turn into a heated dish, pour over Cream Sauce, and serve. Delicious. More delicate than cauliflower.
Put one quart of finely cut cabbage into a bowl. Put two Tablespoonfuls of vinegar in a saucepan to boil. Beat two
eggs until light, add to them a half-cup of sour cream and an ounce of butter. Stir this into the vinegar and cook
until boiling hot and slightly thickened, add salt and pepper, pour over the cabbage, mix, dish and stand aside
until cold. Sweet milk may be used in the place of the sour cream, but the dressing is not so rich.
TO BOIL SWEET CORN
Husk the corn just before the time of boiling. Have a large kettle full of boiling water, throw in the corn and boil five minutes after it begins to boil, and serve immediately on a corn cloth. Do not salt the water in which it is boiled.
Trim off the outside leaves of a nice fresh cauliflower, tie it in a piece of cheese-cloth, and put it into well salted
boiling water; boil for twenty or thirty minutes. Be careful to take it out as soon as tender, or it will fall into
pieces Serve either with Drawn Butter or Cream Sauce.
CAULIFLOWER au GRATIN
Boil as in preceding recipe. Drain and separate the head into the little flowerets. Put these in a baking-dish, pour
over Cream Sauce, sprinkle thickly with grated cheese, and brown in a quick oven.
Trim the stalks and tie them in bundles, the heads all one way. Put into well salted boiling water, and boil for
twenty-five minutes. Lift carefully, drain, and arrange neatly upon slices of nicely browned buttered toast. Pour
over it Drawn Butter or Sauce Hollandaise,
Throw freshly shelled peas into a kettle of well salted boiling water and boil ten minutes, drain, add a good
piece of butter and a little pepper. Serve hot.
If the peas are old they must boil about twenty minutes. Long boiling destroys both flavor and color of green peas.
Canned peas should simply be well rinsed in cold water, and then heated, seasoned and served.
String the beans and then cut each bean into about three pieces. Put them into a kettle of boiling water, add a piece
of butter, and when partly done add one teaspoonful of salt. Boil thirty-five minutes. Drain, add to each quart
two ounces of butter, dust over them one tablespoonful of flour, add one gill of cream or milk, bring to boiling point,
add salt and pepper and serve. The first butter is to soften the beans while boiling.
All kind of shelled beans may be cooked in the same manner as string beans, and may be served with cream or simply
with butter, salt and pepper.
EGG PLANT (Fried)
Cut the plant into slices about an eighth of an inch thick, dust them with salt, dip each slice in beaten egg, then in bread-crumbs and fry in smoking hot fat. Fry one side at a time. Drain carefully on brown paper. Serve with tomato catsup.
Cut the turnips into dice, put them in boiling water, and boil twenty minutes. Salt when half done. When done,
drain, dish and pour over them Cream Sauce. This is the very nicest way of cooking all kinds of turnips.
Cut the carrots either into dice or long, narrow strips. Boil forty minutes in water, adding salt just before they
are done. When done, drain, and pour over them Cream Sauce.
If winter beets, soak over night, then boil until tender, which sometimes takes at least four hours, but usually about
two. Be careful not to cut or prick the skin, or the beets will lose both flavor and color. Serve cut into thin slices,
with a little melted butter, salt and pepper.
New beets boil in about thirty or forty minutes.
Scrape and cut the parsnips into halves lengthwise. Boil them thirty minutes, drain, dust with sugar, and brown in
smoking hot fat.
Or — they may be served boiled with Drawn Butter.
Scrape the oyster-plant or salsify, and as fast as you do so throw the pieces into cold water to prevent discoloration.
When all are done, cut them into slices and boil thirty minutes. Drain, and mash through a colander, add to
each dozen roots, one tablespoonful of flour, a teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoon of pepper, and two eggs well beaten.
Mix, form the mixture into oyster-shaped cakes. Fry in smoking hot fat, on both sides.
RICE AS A VEGETABLE
Wash one cup of good rice, and sprinkle it carefully into a kettle full of boiling water, cover and boil rapidly, without stirring, for twenty minutes. Drain, throw into a bowl of cold water to blanch for ten minutes. Drain again, and stand in the colander over boiling water to steam, or stand it in the oven, leaving the door open. Sprinkle with salt, and serve.
Put the uncooked yolks of two eggs into a clean, cold soup-dish, beat them well with a silver or wooden fork about
one minute ; then add a half- teaspoonful of salt, a dash of cayenne, and, if you like it, a half-teaspoonful of mustard.
Work these well together, and then add, drop by drop, a half-pint or more of olive oil. You must stir rapidly and
steadily while adding the oil. Do not reverse the motion, or it may curdle. After adding one gill of oil, alternate
occasionally with a few drops of lemon juice or vinegar. The more oil you use, the thicker the dressing. If too
thick, add a half-tablespoonful or more of vinegar, until the proper consistency. More or less oil may be added, according to the quantity of dressing wanted. With care a quart bottle of oil may be stirred into the yolks of two eggs, alternating with a few drops of lemon juice or vinegar, after adding the first gill of oil. It is easier, however, to start with three yolks when making a quart of dressing. In case the dressing should curdle, ie., the egg and oil separate, which makes the dressing liquid, begin anew at once with the yolks of two eggs in another plate, and after stirring them well, add by teaspoonfuls the curdled mayonnaise, stirring all the while, and then finish by adding more
oil as directed.
In warm weather, it will take only one-half the time, if you put the dish in which you make the mayonnaise
on a piece of ice, or in a pan of ice-water; the oil and eggs should also be cold.
This dressing, if covered closely in a jar or tumbler, will keep in a cool place for one week.
Put a half-teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter-teaspoonful of pepper in a bowl, and add gradually six tablespoonfuls of
olive oil, and then stir in, a little at a time, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, stir continually for one minute until the
dressing begins to thicken, and form an emulsion, and it is ready for use.
SALAD DRESSING WITHOUT OIL
Boil three eggs for fifteen minutes, take out the yolks, mash them fine, and add to them two raw yolks, then add gradually four tablespoonfuls of melted butter and four tablespoonfuls of thick sweet cream, add a half-teaspoonful of mustard; salt and pepper to taste. Mix and work until perfectly smooth, and then add one tablespoonful of vinegar.
Draw, singe, and gently boil a chicken until tender. When done, and perfectly cold, remove the skin and cut the meat
into dice. If you want it very nice, use only the white meat, save the dark for croquettes. After you have cut it,
stand it away in a cold place until wanted. Wash and cut the white parts of celery into pieces about a half-inch long,
throw them into a bowl of cold water and stand them away until wanted. To every pint of chicken allow two-
thirds of a pint of celery, and a cup and a half of mayonnaise dressing. When ready to serve, dry the celery and
mix with the chicken, dust lightly with salt, white pepper or cayenne, then mix with it the mayonnaise. Serve on a
cold dish garnished with the white celery tips.
MAYONNAISE OF SALMON
One pint of cold boiled or canned salmon, freed from all bones and skin, and a half-pint of mayonnaise, may be
mixed together and served on a bed of crisp lettuce leaves.
Boil twenty oysters in their own liquor five minutes, drain, wash in cold water, then dry and stand away until very
cold. When cold, mix with a half-cup of mayonnaise, and serve on crisp lettuce leaves.
Boil, open and cut into neat pieces one large or two small lobsters, and stand aside to get very cold. When ready to
serve, mix with it a half-pint of cold mayonnaise. Garnish a salad dish with crisp lettuce leaves, put the salad in the
centre, and serve.
Cut a slice from the stem end of a small, smooth tomato, take out a few of the seeds, fill the cavities with mayonnaise or other thick salad dressing, stand the tomatoes on lettuce leaves, and serve.
Any or all vegetables may be made into salads. Lettuce, sorrel, corn-salad, water-cress and pepper-grass are best
served with French dressing. Tomatoes, asparagus, string beans and potatoes are best with thick dressings.
Prepare the dressing as follows, and stand it aside to cool while you mix the salad. Boil one good-sized potato until
dry and mealy. Press it through a fine sieve, add two ounces of butter, two tablespoonfuls of cream, a teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of mustard, a dash of cayenne, and the yolks of three eggs. Beat until perfectly smooth
and light, and stand aside to cool. Cut into small pieces the remains of cold roast veal or chicken, add to it a dozen
olives cut into small pieces, one cold boiled carrot cut into thin slices, two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, and a
teaspoonful of onion juice. Mix the dressing with this, and serve on lettuce leaves.
Wash and dry two heads of lettuce and a bunch of watercress ; cut two boiled red beets into thin slices; cut a half-
dozen small red radishes into slices; chop six hard-boiled eggs rather fine. Arrange the lettuce leaves nicely in a
salad bowl; mix the cress, radishes, beets, eggs, and one sliced cucumber together, and mix with the whole a half-
pint of cardinal mayonnaise, which is made by adding beet juice to plain mayonnaise. Put in the salad bowl on the
lettuce leaves, and serve at once.
Wash, trim and soak in cold water for one hour a good-sized mackerel, then cover it with boiling water, and simmer
twenty minutes. Drain and cut into dice. Cut into small blocks sufficient cold roast beef to make a pint. Cut two
boiled potatoes into dice. Mix one tablespoonful of capers, one tablespoonful of chopped gherkins, the same of chopped onion, the same of chopped parsley, ten good-sized olives, stoned, and two hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine; add to this the beef, potato and mackerel. Mix carefully, and pour over it a half-pint of French salad dressing; season highly with salt and cayenne. Put the whole in a salad bowl, and lay over the top two dozen cold raw oysters.
Wash the cranberries, put them in a porcelain-lined or granite saucepan, add to each quart of berries one pint of
water, cover and cook ten minutes, add one pound of sugar, mix, and turn out to cool.
Put one pound of granulated sugar and a half-pint of water on to boil. Boil two minutes, skim, add one quart of whole
cranberries, cover the saucepan and stand it on the back part of the range to heat slowly for two hours. They must
not boil or the skins will break. These are very nice to serve with roasted fowl or turkey.
STEWED DRIED PEACHES
If the peaches are clean do not wash them, but if they look dusty wash quickly in cold water, then cover with fresh
cold water, soak over night, and cook in the same water until they are tender. Sweeten to taste. All kinds of dried
fruit may be cooked in the same manner, Cut, without peeling, the rhubarb into pieces about one
inch long. To each quart of these pieces, add a half-pound of sugar, cook the two together slowly without water for
ten minutes. Turn out carefully to prevent breaking. Serve very cold.
Pare, quarter, and core tart apples, put them in a porcelain- lined or granite saucepan with just enough water to keep
them from scorching, cook until tender, press through a sieve, and to each quarter add a piece of butter the size of
a walnut, and sugar to taste.
COMPOTE OF APPLES
Pare and core nice tart apples, place sufficient in a preserving kettle to just cover the bottom, add a very little water, cover the kettle, and steam until the apples are tender, but not soft; then dust them heavily with sugar; lift them carefully with a skimmer; place them on a pretty, flat glass dish. Add to the water remaining in the kettle sufficient sugar to thoroughly sweeten, add a few pieces of the. yellow rind of lemon, boil a moment, pour it over the apples and stand aside to get very cold.