The Palace of Agriculture  was the largest building at the St. Louis World's Fair and the most immense ever built for an Exposition. Its area was  the size of 10 football fields and its height was as tall as an eight story building. 

Former President- Thomas Jefferson believed that  for  democracy to flourish,  American would  do so as a nation of  gentlemen farmers. Though in obvious contrast to  the industrial and technological `message,'  that the Fair  promoted,  the Palace of Agriculture was a  testament to  Jefferson’s dream of an agrarian society. Since the United States  was  still mainly  an agricultural nation (especially  the farm-rich Midwest), the Palace of Agriculture showcased the breadbasket of American production, hence its enormous scope.

Designed by Emmanuel Lewis Masqueray,  and built by Caldwell & Drake of Columbus, Indiana;
the Palace of Agriculture  housed   twenty three acres of exhibits and 10,000 exhibitors.  Masquerey’s 
design was  subdued  and used sculpture to enhance and not overload adornments on his facades. 
Masquerey stated-  “The essence of good design is that a building reflect the purpose for which 
it was intended.”

The Palace of Agriculture building measured 546 feet wide and 1,660 feet long. A walk of 
three-quarters of a mile   was required to simply pass around it.  Constructed at a 
cost of 529,940 dollars,  the palace was sectioned into  148 blocks and contained elaborate exhibits 
from fifteen countries  and forty-two states.  Some exhibits within the Palace were complete with
roofs of their own while  others were walls only.  On the east side of it's exterior was planted the
largest rose garden in the  world, covering 10 acres and displays 1,000,000 blooms.

The Agricultural structure  design  departs materially from the general ornate style of the other
Exposition Palaces, since it was not near the Grand View.  

Within the huge edifice, 170,000 square-feet of space was used to display  dazzling showcases of farm
products: corn, tobacco, wheat, sugar,  etc.There were  contests and plenty of produce
and drink to sample and purchase. The palace also set aside 30,000 square-feet to house the
latest technology in butter, cheese-making and pasteurization- as well as recent federal regulation
of food processing. A  full-sized working dairy plant provided milk and cheese for bakeries and a meat
plant showcasing the latest humane slaughter facilities.  

The Missouri exhibit occupied prominent position at the main entrance of thepalace on the main aisle. Its facade was artistically made out of  grains and grasses, illustrating  a series of thirty pictures contrasting  the old and new
methods in agriculture. its  centerpiece was a forty-five foot tall Missouri Corn Palace, part  of an  exhibit by five corn producing  Midwestern states.

North Dakota displayed  the authentic cabin occupied by  a then youthful Theodore Roosevelt when he worked on a cattle farm in the 1880's. 
Kentucky showcased 4,628 square feet  for its  tobacco display. With 232 exhibitors the state  also showcased its production of corn and hemp (Kentucky produced more than 90% of US hemp at the time). 

Louisiana proudly displayed exhibits of rice, cotton and 2000 feet of space, solely devoted to over 100 varieties of sugar cane. 

Mississippi  showed a special cotton   exhibit, including the 35-foot statue of "King Cotton."

Foreign nations  exhibited in the palace.  The Argentine Republic is reputed to be the greatest producer of wool
in the world, showcased the Merino and Lincoln sheep. On display was magnificent collection  of sheepskins. They also showed off  their  dairy industry and exhibited natural milk and dairy technology and modernization.  
Germany's   exhibit included new improvements in sterilization  and food safety.

The Palace of Agriculture was so large  and with over  10,000 exhibitors,  If one  took in all the exhibits  in the huge building  alone, one would walk nine miles.

On its northern edge, The Palace of Agriculture housed another  engineering masterpiece- The  112 foot round Floral Clock. Not only  was the  timepiece the largest clock in the world,  during the  growing months, the clock would then have 13,000 flowering plants covering its face. At night, it was illuminated by a thousand lights.  Operated by  compressed air, the minute  hand  was 75 feet long and weighed 2,700 pounds and moved five feet every minute. 
The hour hand was 50 feet long. A  5,000 pound bell  was struck on the hour  and half hour.  Upon each hour, a mammoth hourglass turned so  the sands could  run back. 

Near the palace, an impressive collection of  windmills (renamed- aerometers), occupied  several acres 
upon Agricultural Hill. This showcased harnessing the power of the wind for  agricultural uses. 
wind-powered irrigation, water pumping,  corn  shelling and grinding, to name a few,  were shown.  

Though exhibitors were encouraged to display their  produce and wares with creative flair, some  needing  an edge to attract the massive amount of fairgoers designed and created unique and  bizarre  displays,  many which were quite humorous.  

Around the fair, camera could be  carried and pictures taken everywhere except in the Agriculture Building. The photographing rights to that building are strictly reserved by the official photographer. 

In the Palace of Architecture alone, there are 147,250 panes of glass, all 18 x 25 inches.

15,000 feet of space was devoted to corn alone. 

A few of the  state food `oddity' exhibits:

California exhibit:   included  31 pound radishes,  22 foot high corn stalks, a Wine Temple with over 300 varieties of wine. State seal made out of dried beans. Aso a replica of a Spanish Mission made from California apricots, peaches and prunes.
Kansas exhibit:   included a relief of a work operating a cream separator in butter.   Striking  eagles, an Indian and eagles made out of corn.  

 Kentucky exhibit: included an obelisk, 12 feet high, made of blue grass from the experiment station. 

Minnesota exhibit:  included a refrigerated  nine by twenty foot butter sculpture of Father Hennepin's discovery of the St. Anthony Falls.   

Missouri exhibit:   included a refrigerated 2900 pound cream cheese sculpture of a maid milking a Holstein cow.  And a 4700 pound cheese.

New York State  exhibit:  included an eighteen foot lighthouse made from salt.

Texas exhibit:   included a huge state  seal made out of various grains and grasses.

Click on  the words to go to: Sculpture Fair/Oddities
Palace designer- E.L. Masqueray
Missouri's Corn Palace 
Mississippi's King Cotton 
The Great Floral Clock
Lee  Gaskins'   AT THE FAIR  The 1904 St. Louis World's   Fair  
                     Web  Design and Art/Illustration   copyrighted  2008 
Palace of Agriculture interior- part of Kansas display
Lee  Gaskins'   AT THE FAIR  The 1904 St. Louis World's   Fair  
                     Web  Design and Art/Illustration   copyrighted  2008 
Lee  Gaskins'   AT THE FAIR  The 1904 St. Louis World's   Fair  
                     Web  Design and Art/Illustration   copyrighted  2008 
At the Southwest  corner of the palace  was a collection of  windmills.