Sculpture was one of the most interesting and striking feature of the Exposition. The general scheme was designed to symbolize the history, local color and allegory of the Louisiana Territory by representing the four successive occupants of the soil:—First, the wild animals; second, the Indians; third, the discoverers and pioneers, and, fourth, the advanced races—French, Spanish and American—which had
built up its present state of civilization.
J. Q. A. Ward, Augustus Saint Gaudens and Daniel Chester French were appointed an Advisory Committee for Sculpture, and Austrian Karl Theodore Francis Bitter, Chief of Sculpture. Bitter designed the Fair to contain sculptures in 250 groups.
One of the fair's sculptural highlights was the semi-circular Colonnade of the States, 1500 feet long, consisting of two rows of Ionic columns sixty- five feet high, supporting a massive entablature. In each of the arc-shaped spaces between the columns was a statue of a draped seated female figure symbolic of one of the States or Territories of the Louisiana Purchase, and suggesting something of its history or industrial achievement.
Festival Hall's Evelyn B. Longman's `The Victory' surmounted the splendid dome. H. A. MacNeil's massive fountain, "The Triumph of Liberty," formed an allegorical veil before the entrance to the Hall of Festivals. " Liberty," "Justice" and "Truth" dominated from a serene height, other groups, symbolical of the human qualities which spring from and are fostered by liberty.
The East Cascade was dominated by "The Spirit of the Pacific," showing the airy figure of a graceful girl, floating in space, attended by an albatross. "The Spirit of the Atlantic," surmounted the West Cascade and embodied the splendor of full womanhood.
The Louisiana Monument, was 100 feet high, and rose from the center of the Plaza of St. Louis. The monument was the conception of B. L. Masqueray, designer-in-chief of the Exposition. Four groups of statuary form part of the ensemble of the monument. At the extreme north end of the Plaza of St. Louis, in direct line with the Hall of Festivals and the Louisiana Monument, was another of the principal statues- "The Apotheosis of St. Louis," by Charles H. Niehaus. The group symbolized the cordial welcome extended by the City of St. Louis to her guests from every part of the world. At its base was Karl Bitter's "Signing of the Treaty." After the Fair, two bronze casts of this famous statue were taken. One resides at the state capitol in Jefferson city, while the other was placed at the Jefferson memorial in Forest park (in 1913).
For the Fair, Niehaus offered to cast "The Apotheosis of St. Louis," in bronze for 90,000 dollars, a price so high that the Exposition commission approached a local firm, W. R. Hodges, proposed to complete the project for 37,500 dollars, which was accepted.
Towering fifty feet into the air was a massive equestrian statue of the crusader- St. Louis, for whom the Exposition city was named. At the base of the pedestal, on which the king and his charger were mounted, was a seated female figure, symbolic of the matron "St. Louis." Besides her were the youthful figures of "Inspiration" and "Genius." This emblematic figure was selected to adorn the cover of the Official Guide.
The Grand View or Main Picture had a staggering array of sculptural wonders. Here are some of the few pieces that were in this area and surrounding places:
"The Mountain" and "The Plain," by Lorado Taft.
"Pastoral," by C. A. Heber.
"Sioux Chief," equestrian, by C. E. Dallin.
"Cherokee Chief," equestrian, by J. E. Fraser.
"Cheyenne Chief," by F. Remington.
Plaza of St. Louis:
"Apotheosis of St. Louis," by C. H. Niehaus.
"De Soto," equestrian, by E. C. Potter.
"Louis Joliet," by A. P. Proctor.
Louisiana Purchase Monument:
All figures by Carl Bitter.
"Peace," on globe surmounting shaft.
"Signing of the Treaty."
"Spirit of the Missouri River" and "Spirit of the Mississippi River," at base.
Main Launch Landing:
Four groups by Solon Broglum.
"A Step to Civilization."
"Cowboy at Rest."
"Peril of the Plains."
East Launch Landing:
"Combat of Grizzly Bears" and "Combat
of Sea Lions," by F. G. R. Roth.
West Launch Landing:
"Combat Between Bull and Cougar" and "Cougar Attacking
"Dying Cow," by E. C. Potter.
Entrance to the Pike:
"Shooting up the Town," by F. Remington.
One of the most beloved and famous sculptures, Auguste Rodin's "The Thinker," was given special prominence at the Fair. One of 21 period casts from Rodin's original, the massive figure was created in Paris. The cast, believed to have been supervised by Rodin himself and was the only bronze statue cast made from the "lost-wax" method. After the Fair, "The Thinker" was sold to Henry Walters, who displayed it in his home courtyard until 1949. The statue now resides at the front of Grawemeyer Hall at the University of Louisville.
August Gerber, a German sculptor, was awarded the grand prize for his 3D work. In all he created 58 artworks that could be viewed at the Palace of Liberal Arts as well as Education. Though many of his pieces (created from a mixture of plaster and alabaster), were destroyed, vandalized or forgotten in the 1950 and 60s, a restoration process in the mid-to late 1970s reclaimed 42 of the sculptures, returning them to the glory they deserve in the museum at Southeast State Missouri University.
The palaces had some amazing sculptures, here are some of the pieces and if known- artists credited:
Palace of Manufactures:
Quadriga over main entrances, by Charles Lopez and F. G. R. Roth.
"Progress of Manufactures," groups on pylons flanking main entrance, by Isidore Konti.
"Victory," main entrance, by Michael Tonetti.
"Energy" and "Power," groups flanking E. and W. entrances, by L. O. Lawrle.
Casque with flags, and female figures with eagle-crowned shields, on roof-line, by L. Amatels.
"Fountain of Neptune" and "Fountain of Venus," flanking N. and S. entrances and corner pavilions, by
Spandrels over all doors, by G. T. Brewster.
Seated figures in main entrance, by Zolney, Packer and Hetwr.
Greek Sphinx on block pedestals in front of colonnade, marking smaller entrances, Anonymous.
Palace of Transportation:
Group with shield, in curving entablature over all main entrances, by Paul Wienie.
"Transportation by Rail" and "Transportation by Boat," seated figures at base of corner lowers, by George J. Xolnay.
"Spirit of Transportation," figure for crown pylons, by F. F. Horter.
Seated figures flanking main entrances, by V. H. Packer and Carl Heber.
Figure at base of towers, by William Slevers.
Palace of Mines and Metallurgy:
"Coal," "Iron," "Gold," "Copper," above frieze line, on screen wall, four by Charles Mulligan.
Architectural figures between columns, by F. W. Ruckstuhl.
"Torch-bearer" and attendant figures, and frieze at base of obelisks, by Rudolph Schwartz.
Frieze on screen wall between columns, by Theodore Baur.
Palace of Varied Industries:
Tympanum group, E. pediment, by Clement J. Banmorn.
Tympanum group, S. pediment, by Douglas Tilden.
Torch-bearer, repeated ten times above entablature of swinging colonnade, by Bruno D. Zimm.
Lions, surmounting pylons, S. entrance, by F. W. Ruokstubl.
"Industry of Man"- and "Industry of Woman," seated figures between columns
E. facade, by Antonin C. Skodik.
Symbolic groups, E. and W. entrances, by John Flanagan.
N. entrance four figures, W. cornice, by F. W. Ruckstuhl.
Spandrels, bas-relief, W. entrance, by Peter Rossak.
Spandrels, bas-relief, corner towers, by William W. Manatt.
Palace of Education:
All statuary by Robert Bringhurst.
Quadriga over main entrances.
"Goldenrod," architectural figure, repeated six times over entrance colonnades.
"Thread of Fate," flanking quadriga.
"Flight of Time," flanking quadriga.
"Music," group on block pedestal, right of each main entrance.
"Manual Training." group on block pedestal, left of each main entrance.
"Archaeology" and "Music," spandrels in the round, over large doors.
"Geography" and "History," spandrels in the round, over small doors.
Palace of Machinery:
"Labor/Care." tympanum group, repeated over six entrances, by Fernando Miranda.
"Shield Holders," repeated eight times, E. and N. entrances, above cornice, by A. A. Weinmann.
"Atlas with Globe," colossal group, N. facade, by R. H. Perry.
Spandrels for W. facade, by Anton Schaaf.
Spandrels, bas relief, E. and N. facades, by Melva Beatrice Wilson.
Group over N. pavilion, by Max Mauch.
Palace of Electricity:
"Light Overcoming Darkness." group crowning pyramidal corner towers, and "Wonders of the Lightning" and "Wonders of the Aurora" on corner towers, by Bela Pratt.
"Light," "Heat," "Speed," "Power," four seated figures above pairs of projected columns on E. facade, by
"Electricity," group over main entrance, by Charles Grafly.
Many statues were portraits of famous people in history, here are a few of these:
Horace Mann," W. entrance to Palace of Education, by H. K. Bush-Brown.
"Pestalozzl," N. entrance to Palace of Education, by A. Jaegers.
"Joseph Henry," E. entrance to Palace of Electricity, by J. Flanagan.
"Benjamin Franklin," N. entrance to Palace of Electricity, by John Boyle.
"Charles Goodyear," S. entrance to Palace of Manufactures, by Michael Tonetti.
"Daniel Boone," by Enid Yundall.
"Meriwether Lewis", by Charles Albert Lopez
"G. R. Clark," by Elsie Ward.
"W. Clark." by P. W. Ruckstuhl.
"Sleur La Salle," by L. Oudebrod.
"Thomas Jefferson," by Charles Grafly.
"Napoleon," by Daniel C. French. Left approach to Cascades:
"Paufllo Narvacz," by H. Adams.
"James Madison," by Janet Scudder.
"Robert Livingston," by A. Lubemann.
"James Monroe," by Julia Bracken.
"Marbois," by H. Herring.
"Andrew Jackson," by L. Potter.
"Philippe Renault," by A. S. Calfler.
"Anthony Wayne." by W. C. Noble.
"Pierre Langlade," by J. Hartley.