Lee Gaskins' AT THE FAIR The 1904 St. Louis World's Fair
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Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, (born- Laurens Tadema), was arguably the most successful of the Victorian painters. Born on January 8, 1836, in Dronrijp, the Netherlands.-he trained at the Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, later settling in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there. A neo-classical painter, he became famous for his dazzling and detailed depictions of the Roman Empire.
In 1852 he entered The Royal Academy of Antwerp where he studied early Dutch and Flemish art, under Egide Charles Gustave Wappers. Before leaving school, he assisted painter and professor Louis (Lodewijk) Jan de Taeye.
On September 24, 1863 he married Marie-Pauline Gressin, the daughter of Eugene
Gressin, a French journalist of royal descent living near Brussels. Alma-Tadema and his wife spent their honeymoon in Florence, Rome, Naples and Pompeii, beginning a . strong interest in depicting the life of ancient Greece and Rome; especially the latter since he found new inspiration in the ruins of Pompeii, which fascinated him and would inspire much of his work in the coming decades. Marie-Pauline died 6 years later of small pox.
With his small daughters and sister Artje, Alma-Tadema moved to London in September 1870 where he continued with much success. Alma-Tadema became one of the most famous and highly paid artists of his time.
In his personal life, Alma-Tadema was an extrovert and had a remarkably warm personality. He was an excellent businessman, and one of the wealthiest artists of the nineteenth century.
Alma-Tadema's output decreased with time, due in part to ill health, but he continued to exhibit throughout the 1880s and into the next decade, receiving a plentiful amount of accolades including the Great Gold Medal at the International Fine Arts Exposition in Brussels of 1897. In 1899 he was Knighted in England.
On 15 August 1909 Alma-Tadema’s second wife, Laura, died at the age of fifty-seven. Alma Tadema died on June 28, 1912 at the age of seventy-six. He was buried in a crypt in St. Paul’s cathedral in London.
Alma-Tadema had three works exhibited at the 1904 World's Fair- `The Coliseum,' `At the Shrine of Venus,' and the above picture- 'Caracalla: AD 211.'
Alfonse Maria Mucha, was born in the town of Ivančice, Moravia (Czech Republic). He was an avid singer, but drawing had been his first love since childhood. He worked at theatrical painting jobs in Moravia, moved to Vienna in 1879 to work for a leading Viennese theatrical design company, while informally continuing his artistic education.
Realizing that living people created the art he admired in churches, Mucha became inspired to paint.
Mucha moved to Paris in 1887, and continued his studies at Académie Julian and Academie Colarossi while also producing magazine and advertising illustrations.
Mucha married Maruška (Marie/Maria) Chytilová on June 10, 1906, in Prague. The couple visited the U.S. from 1906 to 1910; their daughter, Jaroslava, was born in New York City.
Mucha produced a flurry of paintings, posters, advertisements, and book illustrations, as well as designs for jewellery, carpets, wallpaper, and theatre sets in what came to be known as the Art Nouveau style. Mucha's works frequently featured beautiful healthy young women, barefoot in flowing vaguely Neoclassical looking robes, often surrounded by lush flowers which sometimes formed haloes behind the women's heads. In contrast with contemporary poster makers he used paler colors. He became also active in designing jewelry. Mucha exhibited his paintings at The Art Institute of Chicago in 1906 and a had a show of five mural paintings illustrating the history of the Slavs at The Art Institute of Chicago in 1921.
The rising tide of fascism in the late 1930s led to Mucha's work being denounced in the press as 'reactionary'. When German troops marched into Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1939, Mucha was among the first people to be arrested by the Gestapo.
During the course of the interrogation the aging artist fell ill with pneumonia; he died in Prague on July 14 of a lung infection.
Mucha’s style experienced an enthusiastic revival in the 1960s, particularly in psychedelic posters.
Mucha's art Nouveau illustration- the quintessential poster for the 1904 Worlds Fair.
Frank Russell Green, a New York artist, was born in 1856. He studied at the Academie Julien and was a member of the National Academy of Design, New York Watercolor Society, Salmagundi Club, and American Watercolor Society. His work was exhibited at the Paris Salon, 1893 Columbian Exhibition, and 1904 World's Fair. Green died in 1940.
`Early fall landscape with distant hills,' is an oil on canvas, 12" x 16."
Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh, was an explorer-painter-architect. Born on September 13, 1853, the Ohio native was hired as the artist to accompany Major John Wesley Powell’s second Colorado River expedition, a three-year project, at the age of seventeen.
Dellenbaugh returned there in 1875 when Powell was head of the U.S. Geological Survey. Later, he made additional trips west, including New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
In 1882 at the Académie Julian in Paris he studied under Jules-Joseph Lefebvre and Carolus-Duran. He was taught to paint realistically, but was encouraged to personalize and interpretatie nature. Dellenbaugh actively exhibited his works a the National Academy of Design (1880-98), the Brooklyn Art Association (1881 and 1886), and the Paris Salons of 1883 and 1884. He also showed several works at the World’s Columbian Exposition
This oil painting of Zion NAtional Park was created in 1903 and exhibited at the 1904 World's Fair.
Dellenbaugh died in New York City on January 29, 1935.
Elizabeth Frueh, created this tapestry in 1887. This Elizabeth Frueh needlework depicts the Virgin Mary handing out bread outside a church.
This needlepoint picture was donated by the husband of the artist's granddaughter. The family has said that this needlepoint won a prize at the 1904 World's Fair. This work recalls an era when some St. Louis children were educated in German, in this case at the old St. Mary's school in South St. Louis near the Lemp Brewery.
The image is 24.5" x 19.25"
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, was an English artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. He was involved in the rejuvenation of the tradition of stained glass art in England.
Entitled- Flamma Vestalis, and painted in 1886, on oil on canvas 107.9 x 37.4 cm. The image to the left now resides in the London Collection of Lord Lloyd-Webber. The Pre-Raphellite/Neoclassical artists were very popular at the 1904 Fair.
Jones was born in Birmingham, the son of a Welshman frame-maker, Edward Richard Jones. Burne-Jones had intended to become a church minister, but under (mentor), Rossetti's influence both he decided to pursue a career in art.
He married Georgiana "Georgie" MacDonald (who was also training to be a painter in 1860.
Burne-Jones was elected an associate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours in 1864, and exhibited many of his works. In 1870, he resigned his membership, after the society suggested to modify his painting- `Phyllis and Demophoön' which suggestion of female sexual assertiveness offended Victorian sensibilities. In May 1877, Jones had a widely successful exhibit in the Grosvenor Gallery, which began a grand period of shows and commissions. Jones was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1885.
Though criticized for not painting in a ultra-realistic style, Jones's work and design showcase romantic temper and dreams of the Pre-Raphaelite. His figures were attractive and his aesthetically pleasing compositions and use of pure and variegated color were his noted strengths.
In 1881 Burne-Jones received an honorary degree from Oxford, and was made an Honorary Fellow in 1882. Jones began hyphenating his name to stand out from the many Jones.
On May 3rd, 1894, Jones was formally named a baronet of Rottingdean, in the county of Sussex, and of the Grange, in the parish of Fulham, in the county of London in the baronetage of the United Kingdom.
Burne-Jones exerted a considerable influence on British painting.
He died on June 17, 1898 after a losing bout with influenza.
Sir Philip Burne-Jones, 2nd Baronet (b. 1861, d. 1926) was Edward's only surviving son (Jones' second son died shortly after birth), who great to adulthood (and later fame). He became a well-known painter in his own right, producing more than 60 paintings, including portraits, landscapes, and poetic fantasies.
Edward Burn-Jones' work has had several renaissances of admiration throughout the years. His stained glass works include the windows of St Martin's Church in Brampton, Cumbria, the church designed by Philip Webb, All Saints, Jesus Lane, Cambridge and in Christ Church College, Oxford.
Cecilia Beaux, was considered by many to be the finest woman painters as early as 1902.
She was born in Philadelphia, as was raised by her grandmother and aunt after her mother died ( and her father moving to France). Cecilia studied drawing under Catherine Drinker, an historical and religious painter. She also studied under Adolf Van der Whalen and at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under Thomas Eakins, and semi-privately with William Sartain. In 1888 she traveled to Paris to study at the Académie Julian.
At eighteen, Beaux was appointed drawing teacher at Miss Sanford's School, taking over Drinker’s post.
In 1895, she became the first full-time woman faculty member at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
Beaux exhibited her work and garnered prizes in museum exhibitions from Philadelphia and New York to Paris. She was awarded full membership in the male-dominated National Academy. She painted a portrait of Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt and her daughter in the White House, in 1901-1902.
The painting to the right- `The Dreamer,' gained a gold medal at the 1904 World's Fair. The piece has an obvious homage stylistically to John Singer Sargent, whom many considered her, his equal. “A perfect technique in anything,” she stated in an interview, “means that there has been no break in continuity between the conception and the act of performance.” She summed up her driving work ethic, “I can say this: When I attempt anything, I have a passionate determination to overcome every obstacle…And I do my own work with a refusal to accept defeat that might almost be called painful.”
In 1933 Beaux received from First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt a gold medal from the women's fraternal organization Chi Omega, an award that honored American women for cultural contributions on the international stage.
Beaux stopped painting in the mid-1920s, published her popular autobiography "Background with Figures" in 1930, and died at Green Alley at the age of eighty-seven, and was buried in Bala-Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.
Charles Cottet, was born in Le Puy, Auvergne, in the southern France.
He studied under Puvis de Chavannes, a decorative artist, in Paris in 1882, but later turned to drawing nature.
He led a school of painters known as the Bande noire or Nubians group (for the somber palette they used, in contrast to the brighter post-impressionist paintings), and was friends with such artists as Auguste Rodin.
In 1892, Cottet visited Bretagne in the north western part of France and fell in love with the region and started to draw the lives of people there in a realistic way.
The painting to the left- "Old Horse" was drawn in Bretagne and was exhibited in the French section of the 1904 World's Fair. The work is now displayed at the National Museum of Western Art, Japan's premier Museum that specializes in Western Art.
In 1890, he helped form the Salon de la Societe National des Beaux-Arts. Cottet died in Paris in 1925.
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